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Fiber Optics Sensor

The fiber optic sensor has an optical fiber connected to a light source to allow for detection in tight spaces or where a small profile is beneficial.

The fiber-optic cable that is connected to the amplifier allows the sensor to reach areas inaccessible to standard photoelectric sensors. The sensor emits, receives, and converts the light energy into an electrical signal. … Light bounces off the fiber walls of fiber-optic cable.

Optical sensors make use of the same physical phenomena to perform their sensing operation but involve no optical fiber. They instead rely on lens or mirror systems to transmit and manipulate the beams of light used in their sensing process.

The optical fiber consists of the core and the cladding, which have different refractive indexes. The light beam travels through the core by repeatedly bouncing off the wall of the cladding. The light beam, having passed through the fiber without any loss in light quantity, is dispersed at an angle of approximately 60° and emitted to the target.

The purpose of an optical sensor is to measure a physical quantity of light and, depending on the type of sensor, then translates it into a form that is readable by an integrated measuring device. Optical Sensors are used for contact-less detection, counting or positioning of parts

Fiber optic sensing works by measuring changes in the “backscattering” of light occurring in an optical fiber when the fiber encounters vibration, strain or temperature change.  Fiber optic sensing can be deployed to continuously monitor vehicle movement, human traffic, digging activity, seismic activity, temperatures, structural integrity, liquid and gas leaks, and many other conditions and activities.

Fiber optic sensing is used around the world to monitor smart infrastructure, including tunnels, railways, bridges, borders, power stations and pipelines. It is also used in down hole oil and gas applications, to help characterize reservoirs and assist in well-optimization during production and completion

Fig 1. Fiber Optics Sensor

Fig 2. Different types Fiber Optics Sensors